E‐ZPass is an electronic toll collection scheme used on most tolled highways, bridges and tunnels in the Midwestern and Eastern United States as far south as Florida and far west as Illinois.
The E-ZPass Interagency Group (IAG) comprises of 39 member organizations operating in 17 countries using the same technology and allowing tourists to use the same transponder on toll roads throughout the network. Several autonomous schemes using the same technology have been incorporated into the E-ZPass scheme since its inception in 1987, including the I-Pass in Illinois and the NC Quick Pass in North Carolina. Negotiations are underway in the United States for national interoperability.
E-ZPass makes traveling faster and more convenient as one moves through toll facilities, it also helps to decrease traffic congestion. You have to deposit tickets, coins and tokens at the toll plazas in standard toll collection techniques. This has a negative impact on the highway ability due to the sheer number of cars on the highway at a specified moment. The number of cars a highway can accommodate at a specified moment is very restricted.
Functionality of E-ZPass
E‐ZPass tags are active RFID transponder manufactured solely by Kapsch TrafficCom (formerly Mark IV Industries Corp. — IVHS) and interact through a distinctive radio signature to reader devices integrated in lane or open-road toll collectors.
The most common type of tag is an internal tag that can be installed inside the windscreen near the rear mirror. While carriers advise that the mounting strips (usually 3 M Scotch brand Dual Lock fasteners) stick to the windshield, third party alternatives are accessible using suction cup trays to momentarily attach to a windshield if used for several cars.
Some cars have windshields that block RF signals; an external tag is provided for those cars, historical vehicles and clients with aesthetic issues, typically intended to connect to the front license plate mounting points of the vehicle.
Although a tag can be used with a motorcycle, owing to the various differences between bicycle models and the tiny region of a motorcycle windshield, there are generally no formal mounting instructions provided which could prove a hindrance if the transponder is connected according to automotive instructions. Transponders can be placed in a shirt or jacket pocket if needed.
Most E‐ZPass lanes are transformed manual toll roads and must have relatively small velocity boundaries for security purposes (typical between 5 and 15 miles per hour (8 and 24 km / h)), so that E‐ZPass cars can fuse securely with cars that stopped paying a cash toll and, in some instances, enable toll employees to securely cross the E‐ZPass lanes to reach booths that accept money payments. However, in some fields (typically lately constructed or retrofitted equipment) there is no need to slow down because E‐ZPass customers can use dedicated traffic lanes (“E‐ZPass Express” or “open street tolling”) that are physically distinct from the toll booth lanes.
- Hampton toll square on I 95 in New Hampshire
- New York State Thruway at the Woodbury toll obstruction
- Atlantic City Expressway
- Interstate 78 Toll Bridge
- Newark Toll Plaza on the Delaware Turnpike
- Pocahontas Parkway in Virginia
- Delaware Route 1
- Illinois Toll way framework
- Hooksett toll square on I 93 in New Hampshire
- Three areas on the New Jersey Turnpike (close to the Delaware Memorial Bridge (Exit 1), close Exit 18W, and the Pennsylvania Extension, which associates with the Pennsylvania Turnpike (Exit 6)
- Garden State Parkway
- Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Gateway, Warrendale, Neshaminy Falls and Mid-County toll courts
- New segments of the Mon– Fayette Expressway
Other highways in the E-ZPass scheme have completely evaded toll booths and switched to all-electronic tolling. As cars pass through toll collection gantries at ordinary velocity, tolls are gathered either through the E-ZPass transponder or by charging the vehicle’s proprietor via automatic number-plate recognition.
- New York State Thruway from the New York City line to Harriman, New York
- Maryland Route 200
- Maryland Route 200
- Massachusetts Turnpike
Each E-ZPass tag is specifically programmed for a specific car class; while any valid life tag will be read and approved in any E‐ZPass toll area, the incorrect toll sum will be paid if the programmed car class of the tag does not match the car. This will lead in a breach and possible big fine being evaluated to the tag holder, particularly if a lower-class tag (e.g. passenger car) is used in a higher-class vehicle such as a bus or truck. In an attempt to avoid this, E‑ZPass tags for commercial vehicles are blue in colour, contrasting with the white tags assigned to standard passenger vehicles. Also used in public staff cars is the blue E‐ZPass.
In New York, an orange E‐ZPass tag is awarded to emergency cars as well as staff of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York and New Jersey Port Authority, and New York State Thruway Authority.
For interoperability purposes, a safe network (the “reciprocity network”) connects all organizations to each other. This network offers the means to exchange tag information and process toll transactions across the different organizations. Tag information is exchanged nightly among organizations. This information may take up to 24 hours on the main network from which the unit is issued (e.g. the New York State Thruway or Illinois Toll way scheme), but may be delayed by up to 72 hours on other networks.
So how does an E-ZPass transponder work? It merely tines in for a flag communicated by the person stationed at the top corner. This 915 MHz flag is sent at a velocity of 500 kbit / s and this method uses TDM convention in 256-bit packets.
Transponders use innovation in composing / reading dynamic Type II. Kapsch, the company that purchased Mark IV Industries, made this technology available to every person for free in 2013 and is offering the chance to sub-license the contract.
Many issuing offices offer a bundled E-ZPass transponder containing toll supports sold over – the-counter in a general store or drug store or any other retail environment, they become significant instantly.
After enlisting their transponders with the issuing E-ZPass centre within a few days of using their original E-ZPass, customers can get the remainder of the equalization.
According to the New York and New Jersey Port Authority, 83.4 percent of cars crossing its passages and six extensions used E-ZPass for toll instalment in 2016.
For E-ZPass subscribers who replenish their accounts with a significant loan card, the New York and New Jersey Port Authority provides an E-ZPass option to pay for parking at three Port Authority airports— John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia, and Newark Liberty — through a program known as E-ZPass Plus. This program is also accessible in New York at Albany International Airport in Albany; Syracuse Hancock International Airport in Syracuse; and parking lots at New York State Fair when the fair is underway; as well as at Atlantic City, New Jersey, Atlantic City International Airport, New York Avenue.
The parking fee will be debited from the prepaid E‐ZPass account if the parking fee is less than $20. If it is $20 or more, the amount is charged directly to the credit card used to replenish the E‐ZPass account. The Port Authority states that riders save an average of 15 seconds by opting to pay for parking at the airport using E‐ZPass.
Subscribers who replenish their E‐ZPass accounts with money or check may not engage in this program. In addition, as of 2013, this service is only accessible to DelDOT, Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission, Delaware River and Bay Authority, Delaware; New Hampshire DOT; Maryland; New Jersey and New York clients of PANYNJ, New York MTA or NYS Thruway; and Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission clients.